Infectious morbidity is higher after second-stage compared with first-stage cesareans

Methodius G. Tuuli, Lucy Liu, Ryan E. Longman, Anthony O. Odibo, George A. Macones, Alison G. Cahill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Conclusion Second-stage cesarean is associated with an increased risk of endometritis compared with first-stage cesarean. Further studies will determine whether different infection preventive strategies are needed at second-stage cesareans to reduce endometritis.

Objective The objective of the study was to compare maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity following cesareans performed in the second and first stages of labor. Study Design We conducted a retropective cohort study of all consecutive, singleton, term, cesarean deliveries in laboring women in a single institution from 2005 to 2012. Second-stage cesareans were defined as those performed at complete cervical dilation (10 cm), and first-stage cesareans were those performed before 10 cm cervical dilation. The primary outcome was endometritis. Rates of infectious morbidity were compared in the 2 groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted risk estimates.

Results Of 2505 cesareans meeting inclusion criteria, 400 (16.0%) were performed in the second stage, whereas 2105 (84.0%) were performed in the first stage of labor. The risk of endometritis was nearly 3-fold higher in second- compared with first-stage cesareans (4.25% vs 1.52%; crude odds ratio, 2.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-5.23). The risk remained significantly higher after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-5.09).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410.e1-410.e6
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • cesarean
  • first stage
  • infections
  • labor
  • second stage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


Dive into the research topics of 'Infectious morbidity is higher after second-stage compared with first-stage cesareans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this