Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts

Liza Merly, Shabana Simjee, Sylvia L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFα than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFα induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNγ at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFα. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-391
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Sharks
Cartilage
Cytokines
Leukocytes
Chondroitin Sulfates
Dietary Supplements
Chemokines
Interleukin-4
Peptide Hydrolases
Chronic Disease
Pathology
Inflammation
Acids

Keywords

  • CAM
  • Cytokine
  • Immunomodulation
  • Natural product
  • Shark cartilage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts. / Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L.

In: International Immunopharmacology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 03.2007, p. 383-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Merly, Liza ; Simjee, Shabana ; Smith, Sylvia L. / Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts. In: International Immunopharmacology. 2007 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 383-391.
@article{838f8e1cd06644c194899ae9f2038d7a,
title = "Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts",
abstract = "Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFα than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFα induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNγ at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFα. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80{\%}, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation.",
keywords = "CAM, Cytokine, Immunomodulation, Natural product, Shark cartilage",
author = "Liza Merly and Shabana Simjee and Smith, {Sylvia L.}",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.intimp.2006.11.011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "383--391",
journal = "International Immunopharmacology",
issn = "1567-5769",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts

AU - Merly, Liza

AU - Simjee, Shabana

AU - Smith, Sylvia L.

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFα than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFα induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNγ at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFα. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation.

AB - Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFα than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFα induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNγ at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFα. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation.

KW - CAM

KW - Cytokine

KW - Immunomodulation

KW - Natural product

KW - Shark cartilage

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33846582494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33846582494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.11.011

DO - 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.11.011

M3 - Article

C2 - 17276897

AN - SCOPUS:33846582494

VL - 7

SP - 383

EP - 391

JO - International Immunopharmacology

JF - International Immunopharmacology

SN - 1567-5769

IS - 3

ER -