Individual and group sensitivity to remedial reading program design: Examining reading gains across three middle school reading projects

Mary Beth Calhoon, Yaacov Petscher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


The purpose of this project was to examine group- and individual-level responses by struggling adolescents readers (6th-8th grades; N = 155) to three different modalities of the same reading program, Reading Achievement Multi-Component Program. The three modalities differ in the combination of reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, comprehension) that are taught and their organization. Latent change scores were used to examine changes in phonological decoding, fluency, and comprehension for each modality at the group level. In addition, individual students were classified as gainers versus non-gainers (a reading level increase of a year or more vs. less than 1 year) so that characteristics of gainers and differential sensitivity to instructional modality could be investigated. Findings from both group and individual analyses indicated that reading outcomes were related to modalities of reading instruction. Furthermore, differences in reading gains were seen between students who began treatment with higher reading scores than those with lower reading scores; dependent on modality of treatment. Results, examining group and individual analyses similarities and differences, and the effect the different modalities have on reading outcomes for older struggling readers will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-592
Number of pages28
JournalReading and Writing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 5 2013
Externally publishedYes



  • Adolescents
  • Individual gains
  • Latent change score
  • Reading
  • Reading program design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing

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