Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Women After Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer

A Pathological Review of Female Cystectomy Specimens

John P. Stein, Richard J Cote, John A. Freeman, David Esrig, Donald A. Elmajian, Susan Groshen, Eila C. Skinner, Stuart D. Boyd, Gary Lieskovsky, Donald G. Skinner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: In an attempt to identify women who may be appropriate candidates for orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction, archival cystectomy specimens from female patients undergoing cystectomy for primary bladder cancer were reviewed. These pathological findings should provide a better understanding of tumor involvement at the bladder neck (vesicourethral junction) and urethra in women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Cystectomy specimens of 67 consecutive women undergoing surgery for biopsy proved transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between July 1982 and July 1990 were pathologically reviewed. Results: Histological evidence of tumor (carcinoma in situ or gross carcinoma) involving the urethra was present in 9 patients (13 percent). Tumor was confined to the proximal and mid urethra, and the distal urethra was not involved. All patients with carcinoma involving the urethra had concomitant evidence of carcinoma involving the bladder neck. A total of 17 patients (25 percent) had tumor involvement of the bladder neck and those with an uninvolved bladder neck also had an uninvolved urethra. The association between the presence of tumor in the bladder neck and urethra was highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.00012). Tumor involving the bladder neck and urethra tended to be more commonly associated with high grade and stage tumors, and node-positive disease. Conclusions: Although the fate of the retained urethra following cystectomy for bladder cancer in women is unknown, these results show that women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder without evidence of tumor involving the bladder neck are at low risk for urethral malignancy. These patients may be offered lower urinary tract reconstruction that includes preservation of and diversion through the urethra (orthotopic diversion). Urethral surveillance will be necessary, as it is in men after orthotopic urinary diversion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1333
Number of pages5
JournalThe Journal of Urology
Volume154
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995
Externally publishedYes

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Cystectomy
Urethra
Urinary Tract
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Urinary Bladder
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Neck
Neoplasms
Carcinoma
Urinary Diversion
Carcinoma in Situ
Biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Women After Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer : A Pathological Review of Female Cystectomy Specimens. / Stein, John P.; Cote, Richard J; Freeman, John A.; Esrig, David; Elmajian, Donald A.; Groshen, Susan; Skinner, Eila C.; Boyd, Stuart D.; Lieskovsky, Gary; Skinner, Donald G.

In: The Journal of Urology, Vol. 154, No. 4, 01.01.1995, p. 1329-1333.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stein, JP, Cote, RJ, Freeman, JA, Esrig, D, Elmajian, DA, Groshen, S, Skinner, EC, Boyd, SD, Lieskovsky, G & Skinner, DG 1995, 'Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Women After Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: A Pathological Review of Female Cystectomy Specimens', The Journal of Urology, vol. 154, no. 4, pp. 1329-1333. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66850-2
Stein, John P. ; Cote, Richard J ; Freeman, John A. ; Esrig, David ; Elmajian, Donald A. ; Groshen, Susan ; Skinner, Eila C. ; Boyd, Stuart D. ; Lieskovsky, Gary ; Skinner, Donald G. / Indications for Lower Urinary Tract Reconstruction in Women After Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer : A Pathological Review of Female Cystectomy Specimens. In: The Journal of Urology. 1995 ; Vol. 154, No. 4. pp. 1329-1333.
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AU - Esrig, David

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AU - Groshen, Susan

AU - Skinner, Eila C.

AU - Boyd, Stuart D.

AU - Lieskovsky, Gary

AU - Skinner, Donald G.

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N2 - Purpose: In an attempt to identify women who may be appropriate candidates for orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction, archival cystectomy specimens from female patients undergoing cystectomy for primary bladder cancer were reviewed. These pathological findings should provide a better understanding of tumor involvement at the bladder neck (vesicourethral junction) and urethra in women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Cystectomy specimens of 67 consecutive women undergoing surgery for biopsy proved transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between July 1982 and July 1990 were pathologically reviewed. Results: Histological evidence of tumor (carcinoma in situ or gross carcinoma) involving the urethra was present in 9 patients (13 percent). Tumor was confined to the proximal and mid urethra, and the distal urethra was not involved. All patients with carcinoma involving the urethra had concomitant evidence of carcinoma involving the bladder neck. A total of 17 patients (25 percent) had tumor involvement of the bladder neck and those with an uninvolved bladder neck also had an uninvolved urethra. The association between the presence of tumor in the bladder neck and urethra was highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.00012). Tumor involving the bladder neck and urethra tended to be more commonly associated with high grade and stage tumors, and node-positive disease. Conclusions: Although the fate of the retained urethra following cystectomy for bladder cancer in women is unknown, these results show that women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder without evidence of tumor involving the bladder neck are at low risk for urethral malignancy. These patients may be offered lower urinary tract reconstruction that includes preservation of and diversion through the urethra (orthotopic diversion). Urethral surveillance will be necessary, as it is in men after orthotopic urinary diversion.

AB - Purpose: In an attempt to identify women who may be appropriate candidates for orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction, archival cystectomy specimens from female patients undergoing cystectomy for primary bladder cancer were reviewed. These pathological findings should provide a better understanding of tumor involvement at the bladder neck (vesicourethral junction) and urethra in women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Cystectomy specimens of 67 consecutive women undergoing surgery for biopsy proved transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between July 1982 and July 1990 were pathologically reviewed. Results: Histological evidence of tumor (carcinoma in situ or gross carcinoma) involving the urethra was present in 9 patients (13 percent). Tumor was confined to the proximal and mid urethra, and the distal urethra was not involved. All patients with carcinoma involving the urethra had concomitant evidence of carcinoma involving the bladder neck. A total of 17 patients (25 percent) had tumor involvement of the bladder neck and those with an uninvolved bladder neck also had an uninvolved urethra. The association between the presence of tumor in the bladder neck and urethra was highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.00012). Tumor involving the bladder neck and urethra tended to be more commonly associated with high grade and stage tumors, and node-positive disease. Conclusions: Although the fate of the retained urethra following cystectomy for bladder cancer in women is unknown, these results show that women with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder without evidence of tumor involving the bladder neck are at low risk for urethral malignancy. These patients may be offered lower urinary tract reconstruction that includes preservation of and diversion through the urethra (orthotopic diversion). Urethral surveillance will be necessary, as it is in men after orthotopic urinary diversion.

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