Index60 Identifies Individuals at Appreciable Risk for Stage 3 Among an Autoantibody-Positive Population With Normal 2-Hour Glucose Levels: Implications for Current Staging Criteria of Type 1 Diabetes

Brandon M. Nathan, Maria J. Redondo, Heba Ismail, Laura Jacobsen, Emily K. Sims, Jerry Palmer, Jay Skyler, Laura Bocchino, Susan Geyer, Jay M. Sosenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE We assessed whether Index60, a composite measure of fasting C-peptide, 60-min C-peptide, and 60-min glucose, could improve the metabolic staging of type 1 diabetes for progression to clinical disease (stage 3) among autoantibody-positive (Ab+ ) individuals with normal 2-h glucose values (<140 mg/dL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 3,058 Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants with 2-h glucose <140 mg/dL and Index60 <1.00 values from baseline oral glucose tolerance tests. Characteristics associated with type 1 diabetes (younger age, greater Ab+, higher HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 prevalence, and lower C-pep-tide) were compared among four mutually exclusive groups: top 2-h glucose quartile only (HI-2HGLU), top Index60 quartile only (HI-IND60), both top quartiles (HI-BOTH), and neither top quartile (LO-BOTH). Additionally, within the 2-h glucose distribution of <140 mg/dL and separately within the Index60 <1.00 distri-bution, comparisons were made between those above or below the medians. RESULTS HI-IND60 and HI-BOTH were younger, with greater frequency of more than two Ab+, and lower C-peptide levels, than either HI-2HGLU or LO-BOTH (all P < 0.001). The cumulative incidence for stage 3 was greater for HI-IND60 and HI-BOTH than for either HI-2HGLU or LO-BOTH (all P < 0.001). Those with Index60 values above the median were younger and had higher frequency of two or more Ab+ (P < 0.001) and DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 prevalence (P < 0.001) and lower area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide levels (P < 0.001) than those below. Those above the 2-h glucose median had higher AUC C-peptide levels (P < 0.001), but otherwise did not differ from those below. CONCLUSIONS Index60 identifies individuals with characteristics of type 1 diabetes at appreciable risk for progression who would otherwise be missed by 2-h glucose staging criteria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-318
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes care
Volume45
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing

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