OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and drug abuse) and cardiovascular diseases (carotid stenosis, chronic renal failure [CRF], and coronary artery disease [CAD]) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the United States.
METHODS: We used the 2004-2014 National Inpatient Sample to compute weighted prevalence of each risk factor in hospitalized patients with AIS and used joinpoint regression to evaluate change in prevalence over time.
RESULTS: Across the 2004-2014 period, 92.5% of patients with AIS had ≥1 risk factor. Overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and drug abuse were 79%, 34%, 47%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, while those of carotid stenosis, CRF, and CAD were 13%, 12%, and 27%, respectively. Risk factor prevalence varied by age (hypertension: 44% in 18-39 years vs 82% in 60-79 years), race (diabetes: Hispanic 49% vs white 30%), and sex (drug abuse: men 3% vs women 1.4%). Using joinpoint regression, prevalence of hypertension increased annually by 1.4%, diabetes by 2%, dyslipidemia by 7%, smoking by 5%, and drug abuse by 7%. Prevalence of CRF, carotid stenosis, and CAD increased annually by 13%, 6%, and 1%, respectively. Proportion of patients with multiple risk factors also increased over time.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite numerous guidelines and prevention initiatives, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and drug abuse in AIS increased across the 2004-2014 period. Proportion of patients with carotid stenosis, CRF, and multiple risk factors also increased. Enhanced risk factor modification strategies and implementation of evidence-based recommendations are needed for optimal stroke prevention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology