Increases in manic symptoms after life events involving goal attainment

Sheri L. Johnson, David Sandrow, Björn Meyer, Ray Winters, Ivan Miller, David Solomon, Gabor Keitner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

221 Scopus citations


Bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as an outcome of dysregulation in the behavioral activation system (BAS), a brain system that regulates goal-directed activity. On the basis of the BAS model, the authors hypothesized that life events involving goal attainment would promote manic symptoms in bipolar individuals. The authors followed 43 bipolar I individuals monthly with standardized symptom severity assessments (the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale). Life events were assessed using the Goal Attainment and Positivity scales of the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. As hypothesized, manic symptoms increased in the 2 months following goal-attainment events, but depressed symptoms were not changed following goal-attainment events. These results are congruent with a series of recent polarity-specific findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)721-727
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of abnormal psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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