Background: To estimate the incidence, prevalence, frequency, and duration of incarceration and to identify risk factors for incarceration among women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. Methods: During semiannual study visits in a multicenter cohort study, 970 HIV sero-negative participants at risk for HIV were asked about their own incarceration (10/2007-09/2017) and incarceration of sexual partners (10/2013-09/2017). We used descriptive statistics and multivariable log-binomial regression to identify baseline predictors of incident incarceration. Results: Median follow-up time across the 970 participants was 5.5 years (IQR 3.5-9.5). Nearly half (n = 453, 46.7%) of participants were incarcerated during or before the study, and the incarceration rate was 5.5 per 100 person-years. In multivariable models, incident incarceration was associated with prior incarceration (RR 5.20, 95% CI: 3.23-8.41) and noninjection drug use (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10-2.25). Conclusions: Incarceration is common for women at risk for HIV. Prevention interventions that address the complex interplay of drug use, sex exchange, and housing instability for women who have experienced incarceration have the potential to reach an important group of U.S. women at risk of HIV infection.
- HIV risk
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