In vitro evidence for T‐B lymphocyte collaboration in the clawed toad, Xenopus

Bonnie Blomberg, Claude C.A. Bernard, Louis Du Pasquier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Requirements for an in vitro secondary antibody response to the soluble antigens dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin and dinitrophenylated fowl gamma-globulin are described for the clawed toad, Xenopus. Priming of both hapten and carrier-specific cells is required in order to obtain good responses to the hapten. The carrier-reactive ('helper') cells do not adhere to nylon wool, are X ray-resistant and surface Ig-negative. The cell adherence and X ray sensitivity characteristics of these Xenopus 'T' cells and their ability to generate a mixed lymphocyte response, allogeneic cytotoxic and helper activities, are identical to those of thymus-derived (T) cells in higher vertebrates. The hapten-reactive, antibody-secreting cell precursors are nylon-adherent, X ray-sensitive and surface Ig-positive. In the absence of other distinguishing serological markers for T cells in frogs, and considering the thymus dependency of the helper activity described here, the evidence presented is interpreted as demonstrating the requirement for antigen-specific T-B cell cooperation in response to soluble protein antigens in vitro for Xenopus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-876
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1980
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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