In the past decade, the therapeutic potential of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was recognized. This encouraged other investigators to test the efficacy of ATO in the management of other hematological and solid tumor malignancies. Notably, as a single agent, arsenic trioxide did not benefit patients diagnosed with solid tumors. However, when it was combined with other agents, treatment benefit emerged. In this article, we have summarized the outcome of clinical trials that used arsenic trioxide as a single agent as well as in combination settings in patients diagnosed with solid tumors. We have also reviewed possible additional mechanisms by which ATO may be useful as a chemosensitizer in combination therapy. We hope that our review will encourage clinical investigators to rationally combine ATO with additional chemotherapeutic agents in treating patients diagnosed with solid tumors.
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