Purpose: To determine the impact of total pars plana vitrectomies (PPVs) with peripheral shaving of the vitreous base on the rates of postoperative complications in patients with aphakic, snap-on type I Boston keratoprostheses (KPros). Design: Retrospective, consecutive case series. Participants: A total of 48 eyes in 46 patients with implantation of aphakic, snap-on type 1 Boston KPros performed at a tertiary care facility between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, were included. Methods: The cumulative incidences of postoperative complications were compared between patients who underwent total PPVs with shaving of the vitreous base (n = 22) and those who had partial PPVs or anterior vitrectomies (AVs) at the time of KPro implantation (n = 26). Main Outcome Measures: Rates of complications between patients who underwent total PPVs and partial PPVs or AVs. Results: The rate of total postoperative complications was lower in the total PPV group (P = 0.018, log-rank test). In particular, eyes that underwent total PPVs had lower rates of retroprosthetic membranes (RPMs) requiring intervention (P = 0.049) and less vision loss due to glaucoma progression (P = 0.046). There was also a trend for fewer corneal melts (P = 0.060) and less sight-threatening complications (P = 0.051) in the total vitrectomy group. There was no difference in the rates of KPro extrusion (P = 0.41), endophthalmitis or vitritis (P = 0.15), retinal detachments (P = 0.76), cystoid macular edema (P = 0.83), or timing of complications between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative and postoperative visual acuities were similar between the 2 groups (P = 0.97). The mean follow-up was 49±22 months. Conclusions: Eyes that underwent total PPVs during implantation of aphakic, snap-on, type I Boston KPros had less postoperative complications than eyes with partial PPVs or AVs during the average 4 years of follow-up.
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