The thiazolidinediones, acting through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, affect multiple areas of metabolism. Of increasing importance is the recognition that these agents affect lipoprotein metabolism and cause changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. All three thiazolidinediones, including troglitazone (which was withdrawn in the year 2000), rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone, tend to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, increase the size/decrease the density of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, and raise the level of lipoprotein(a). In addition, troglitazone and pioglitazone, but not rosiglitazone, lower triglyceride levels modestly, thereby further contributing to increases in LDL and HDL size. The mechanism for these effects is still being clarified, but may involve enhancement of triglyceride clearance (in the case of pioglitazone), alteration of apolipoprotein C-III levels, reduction of hepatic lipase, and increase in ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) activity. The clinical implications of these effects need further exploration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine