Impact of Plant-Based Diet on PSA Level: Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Ali Mouzannar, Manish Kuchakulla, Ruben Blachman-Braun, Sirpi Nackeeran, Maria Becerra, Bruno Nahar, Sanoj Punnen, Chad Ritch, Dipen J. Parekh, Mark L. Gonzalgo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To determine the potential association between plant-based dietary content and PSA levels among men enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: Data on demographics, diet, and PSA levels was acquired from the NHANES database. Plant-based diet index (PDI) and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI) were calculated using food frequency questionnaires. A higher score on PDI and hPDI indicates higher consumption of plant foods or healthy plant foods, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between elevated PSA, clinical variables, demographics, and plant-based diet indices. Results: A total of 1399 men were included in the final cohort. Median age of participants was 54 [46-63] years. Median PSA level was 0.9 [0.6-1.5] ng/dL, and 69 (4.9%) men had a PSA level ≥4 ng/dL. Although there was no association between elevated PSA and PDI, on multivariable analysis patients with higher consumption of healthy plant-based diet (high hPDI scores) had a decreased probability of having an elevated PSA (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.95; P = .034). Conclusion: There is a significant association between increased consumption of a healthy plant-based diet and lower PSA levels. This finding may be incorporated into the shared-decision making process with patients to promote healthier lifestyle choices to reduce the likelihood of prostate biopsy and potential treatment-related morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-210
Number of pages6
StatePublished - Oct 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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