Lack of exercise and low levels of physical activity are risk factors for the development of many chronic diseases, including diabetes, depression, anxiety, and dementia. Conversely, increasing levels of physical activity and exercise can be an important intervention used to manage these diseases. Despite a wealth of evidence that most modes of exercise are effective in reducing symptoms and complications of diabetes and psychiatric disorders, exercise is infrequently used as a therapeutic modality. This chapter will review the evidence related to the benefits of exercise in reducing symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and dementia. Information related to exercise prescription and improving adherence to exercise recommendations will also be discussed.
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