Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch

Timothy G. Townsend, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Thabet Tolaymat, Kristin Stook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 μg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 μg/l with a maximum of 558 μg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 μg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 μg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-185
Number of pages13
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume309
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2003

Fingerprint

mulch
arsenate
Arsenic
Wood
arsenic
copper
Copper
Debris
Chromium
cleanup
Leaching
chromium
Recycling
Groundwater
recycling
Metals
leaching
Wood wastes
Demolition
groundwater

Keywords

  • Arsenic
  • CCA-treated wood
  • Construction and demolition (C&D) debris
  • Mulch
  • Wood waste

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch. / Townsend, Timothy G.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Tolaymat, Thabet; Stook, Kristin.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 309, No. 1-3, 20.06.2003, p. 173-185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Townsend, Timothy G. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M ; Tolaymat, Thabet ; Stook, Kristin. / Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2003 ; Vol. 309, No. 1-3. pp. 173-185.
@article{da1ae87b0c5847c683db8a3a281ec7a3,
title = "Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch",
abstract = "The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 μg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 μg/l with a maximum of 558 μg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 μg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 μg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1{\%} CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).",
keywords = "Arsenic, CCA-treated wood, Construction and demolition (C&D) debris, Mulch, Wood waste",
author = "Townsend, {Timothy G.} and Solo-Gabriele, {Helena M} and Thabet Tolaymat and Kristin Stook",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00047-0",
language = "English",
volume = "309",
pages = "173--185",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch

AU - Townsend, Timothy G.

AU - Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

AU - Tolaymat, Thabet

AU - Stook, Kristin

PY - 2003/6/20

Y1 - 2003/6/20

N2 - The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 μg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 μg/l with a maximum of 558 μg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 μg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 μg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

AB - The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 μg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 μg/l with a maximum of 558 μg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 μg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 μg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

KW - Arsenic

KW - CCA-treated wood

KW - Construction and demolition (C&D) debris

KW - Mulch

KW - Wood waste

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038208024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038208024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00047-0

DO - 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00047-0

M3 - Article

VL - 309

SP - 173

EP - 185

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

IS - 1-3

ER -