Impact of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes in HIV+ kidney transplant recipients: Review of 58 cases

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17 Scopus citations


Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) poses challenging drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressant agents in transplant recipients. We aimed to determine the impact of specific antiretroviral regimens in clinical outcomes of HIV + kidney transplant recipients. Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large academic center. Subjects included 58 HIV - to HIV + adult, first-time kidney transplant patients. The main intervention was ART regimen used after transplantation. The main outcomes assessed at one- and three-years were: patient survival, death-censored graft survival, and biopsy-proven acute rejection; we also assessed serious infections within the first six months post-transplant. Results: Patient and graft survival at three years were both 90% for the entire cohort. Patients receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens had lower patient survival at one and three years than patients receiving PI-sparing regimens: 85% vs. 100% ( p=0.06) and 82% vs. 100% ( p=0.03), respectively. Patients who received PI-containing regimens had twelve times higher odds of death at 3 years compared to patients who were not exposed to PIs (odds ratio, 12.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1602; p=0.02). Three-year death-censored graft survival was lower in patients receiving PI vs. patients on PI-sparing regimens (82 vs 100%, p=0.03). Patients receiving integrase strand transfer inhibitors-containing regimens had higher 3-year graft survival. There were no differences in the incidence of acute rejection by ART regimen. Individuals receiving PIs had a higher incidence of serious infections compared to those on PI-sparing regimens (39 vs. 8%, p=0.01). Conclusions: PI-containing ART regimens are associated with adverse outcomes in HIV + kidney transplant recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2893
StatePublished - 2016


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • HIV
  • Infection
  • Kidney transplant
  • Protease inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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