Impact of a risk-based prevention policy on neonatal group B streptococcal disease

S. H. Factor, O. S. Levine, A. Nassar, J. Potter, A. Fajardo, M. J. O'Sullivan, A. Schuchat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Neonatal group B streptococcal infections can be prevented by intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Beginning in 1992, women with obstetric risk factors University of Miami-Jackson Memorial Medical Center were targeted to receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. We evaluated these preventive efforts. STUDY DESIGN: A case was defined as isolation of group B streptococci from a sterile site in an infant <7 days old born during the study period, 1992-1995. We reviewed systematic samples of women with preterm delivery and prolonged rupture of membranes to assess use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. RESULTS: Group B streptococcal cases declined from 1.7 cases/1000 live births to 0.2 cases/1000 live births (Poisson regression, P = .002). Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis use increased from 13% of preterm deliveries in 1992 to 42% in 1995, and from 20% of deliveries with prolonged rupture of membranes in 1992 to 72% in 1995 (χ2 test for linear trend P = .007 and P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Provision of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on the basis of risk factors was associated with decreased group B streptococcal disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1568-1571
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Volume179
Issue number6 I
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Group B streptococcal disease
  • Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Risk- based approach
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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