Immunofluorescent staining of cancer spheroids and fine-needle aspiration-derived organoids

Kensey N. Bergdorf, Courtney J. Phifer, Matthew E. Bechard, Mason A. Lee, Oliver G. McDonald, Ethan Lee, Vivian L. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Our organoid generation technique has allowed for the development of downstream organoid applications. Here, we detail an accessible, straightforward protocol for immunofluorescent staining and imaging of thyroid cancer organoids, particularly those with tumor de-differentiation. Immunofluorescence is a powerful tool to help understand the localization of cell types within organoids and determine the interactions between those cells. As organoids have been shown to recapitulate patient tumor morphology, immunofluorescent staining and imaging of organoids allows for enhanced understanding of near in vivo structures. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lee et al. (2020) and Vilgelm et al. (2020).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100578
JournalSTAR Protocols
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 18 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer
  • Cell culture
  • Microscopy
  • Organoids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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