Background Chronic immune stimulation appears to be associated with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)-Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM); however, available information is sparse. We conducted, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive study to date to evaluate associations between a personal or family history of many immune-related and/or inflammatory disorders and the subsequent risk of LPL-WM. Methods We used Swedish population-based registries to identify 2470 case patients with LPL-WM, 9698 matched control subjects, and almost 30 000 first-degree relatives of either case patients or control subjects. We evaluated a wide range of autoimmune, infectious, allergic, and inflammatory conditions. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each condition by use of logistic regression. Results An increased risk of LPL-WM was associated with a personal history of the following autoimmune diseases: systemic sclerosis (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.4 to 15.3), Sjögren syndrome (OR = 12.1, 95% CI = 3.3 to 45.0), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (OR = 24.2, 95% CI = 5.4 to 108.2), polymyalgia rheumatica (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.6 to 5.2), and giant cell arteritis (OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 2.1 to 33.1). An increased risk of LPL-WM was associated with a personal history of the following infectious diseases: pneumonia (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.7), septicemia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3), pyelonephritis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.5), sinusitis (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.9), herpes zoster (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.0 to 5.6), and influenza (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.0). An increased risk of LPL-WM was associated with a family history of the following autoimmune or infectious diseases: Sjögren syndrome (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.1 to 12.0), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.1 to 13.2), Guillain-Barré syndrome (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8 to 9.4), cytomegalovirus (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.4 to 5.3), gingivitis and periodontitis (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.7), and chronic prostatitis (OR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.7 to 11.1). Conclusions Personal history of certain immune-related and/or infectious conditions was strongly associated with increased risk of LPL-WM. The association of both personal and family history of Sjögren syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia with risk of LPL-WM indicates the potential for shared susceptibility for these conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research