Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with recurrent paradoxical cerebellar hiv-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Paola Frattaroli, Teresa A. Chueng, Obinna Abaribe, Folusakin Ayoade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is a known complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Typically preceded by ART initiation, IRIS may appear simultaneously/unmasked (PML-s-IRIS) or as a delayed/worsening/paradoxical (PML-d-IRIS) presentation of known PML disease. Primary cerebellar tropism continues to be a rare presentation, and paradoxical cerebellar involvement of PML-IRIS syndrome can be a challenge for both diagnosis and management. Steroids have been suggested as a possible therapy in severe cases but the duration of steroid therapy remain elusive. Our case is that of a 34-year-old man with newly diagnosed HIV simultaneously found to have cerebellar PML. His PML lesions however worsened after initiation of ART (PML-d-IRIS) with evidence of increased intracranial pressure. Despite initial favorable response to a short duration of steroids, he had multiple recurrence of his PML lesions after steroids were discontinued. The presence of predominant cerebellar lesions and the question of how long steroids should be provided to prevent or minimize PML recurrence is the highlight of our case. This report emphasizes the need for more controlled studies to assist clinicians in the optimal diagnosis and management of PML-IRIS in PLWH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number813
JournalPathogens
Volume10
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Keywords

  • Cerebellar PML-IRIS
  • Paradoxical PML-IRIS
  • Treatment PML-IRIS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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