Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major causes of death worldwide, despite steady improvement in early detection and overall survival over the past decade. Current treatment paradigms, with chemotherapy and biologics, appear to have reached their maximum benefit. Immunotherapy, especially with checkpoint inhibitors, has shown considerable clinical benefit in various cancers, including mismatch-repair-deficient CRC. This has led to the planning and initiation of several clinical trials evaluating novel immunotherapy agents-as single agents, combinations and in conjunction with chemotherapy- in patients with CRC. This article reviews biological and preclinical data for checkpoint inhibitors and discusses various immunotherapy trials in CRC, as well as current efforts in CRC immunotherapy.
- Checkpoint inhibition/blockade
- Colorectal cancer
- Cytotoxic Tlymphocyte- associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)
- Programmed death 1 (PD-1)
ASJC Scopus subject areas