Immune checkpoint inhibitors: The linchpins of modern immunotherapy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized our approach to cancer treatment in the past decade. While monoclonal antibodies to CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 have produced remarkable and durable responses in a subset of patients, the majority of patients will still develop primary or adaptive resistance. With complex mechanisms of resistance limiting the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy, it is critical to develop combination approaches to allow more patients to benefit from immunotherapy. In this review, I approach the current landscape of ICI research from the perspective of sarcomas, a rare group of bone and soft tissue cancers that have had limited benefit from checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy, and little investigation of biomarkers to predict responses. By surveying the various mechanisms of resistance and treatment modalities being explored in other solid tumors, I outline how ICIs will undoubtedly serve as the critical foundation for future directions in modern immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-23
Number of pages18
JournalImmunological reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019


  • CTLA-4
  • immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • immunotherapy
  • PD-1
  • sarcomas
  • T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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