Imaging of visceral adipose tissue: An emerging diagnostic tool and therapeutic target

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

Several lines of evidence support the contention that excess visceral fat plays a significant role in the development of an unfavourable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. Hence, estimation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), that is, the fat surrounding the internal organs might be important for cardiovascular risk stratification. Classically, anthropometric measures have been employed to assess body fat distribution for risk assessment. But more recently, imaging methods for visceral fat quantitation have become a focus of attention particularly in a clinical research setting. Several imaging methods have evolved for estimation of VAT mass. Among these, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fairly well established, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are also emerging as useful methods for quantitation of VAT and fat tissue content in vivo. Ultrasound is the most cost-effective and a convenient. imaging tool whereas MRS is still in its infancy but it is highly promising because of its high sensitivity and specificity. There is a compelling need to quantify VAT not only for diagnostic purpose, but also for therapeutic interventions with weight reduction drugs or pharmaceuticals targeted to with adipose tissue. For example, changes in regional fat distribution can be used to estimate drugs effectiveness and their mechanism of action. Therefore, in this review I shall present briefly latest and main imaging techniques to detect the visceral adiposity, including the new ultrasound measurements of different visceral adipose tissue compartments. Some visceral adipose tissues which are not traditionally assessed, such as intraperationeal, mediastinal and the relatively small depots, such as epicardial adipose tissue have also been recently studied and are now proposed as new markers of visceral adiposity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-353
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Drug Targets - Cardiovascular and Haematological Disorders
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Abdominal ultrasound
  • Adipose tissue imaging
  • Echocardiography
  • Epicardial adipose tissue
  • Magnetic resonance Spectroscopy
  • Visceral adiposity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Hematology
  • Pharmacology

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