Imaging Features Associated with Progression to Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Classification of Atrophy Meeting Report 5

Glenn J. Jaffe, Usha Chakravarthy, K. Bailey Freund, Robyn H. Guymer, Frank G. Holz, Sandra Liakopoulos, Jordi M. Monés, Philip J. Rosenfeld, Srinivas R. Sadda, David Sarraf, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Richard F. Spaide, Giovanni Staurenghi, Adnan Tufail, Christine A. Curcio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: To provide an image-based description of retinal features associated with risk for development of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), as visualized with multimodal imaging anchored by structural OCT. Design: Consensus meeting. Participants: International group that included those with expertise in imaging and AMD basic science and histology, and those with Reading Center experience in AMD clinical trials. Methods: As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meeting program, an international group of experts analyzed and discussed retinal multimodal imaging features in eyes with AMD associated with GA, risk of progression to GA, or both. Attendees undertook premeeting grading exercises that were reviewed during the meeting sessions. Meeting presentations illustrated established and investigational multimodal imaging features and associated histologic features. Each of these different features were then discussed openly by the entire group to arrive at consensus definitions. These definitions were applied to 40 additional images that were graded independently by attendees to refine the consensus definitions and descriptions further. Results: Consensus was reached on images with descriptors for 12 features. These features included components of outer retinal atrophy (e.g., ellipsoid zone disruption), components of complete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and outer retinal atrophy (e.g., RPE perturbation with associated hypotransmission or hypertransmission), features frequently seen in eyes with atrophy (e.g., refractile drusen), and features conferring risk for atrophy development (e.g., hyperreflective foci, drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits). Conclusions: An international consensus on terms and descriptions was reached on multimodal imaging features associated GA and with risk for GA progression in eyes with AMD. We believe this information will be useful to clinicians who manage patients with AMD, researchers who study AMD disease interventions and pathogenesis, and those who design clinical trials for therapies targeting earlier AMD stages than GA expansion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)855-867
Number of pages13
JournalOphthalmology Retina
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Atrophy
  • Multimodal imaging
  • OCT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Imaging Features Associated with Progression to Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Classification of Atrophy Meeting Report 5'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this