Identification of the retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor-responsive element in the human K14 keratin gene

Marjana Tomic-Canic, Ivana Sunjevaric, Irwin M. Freedberg, Miroslav Blumenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The promoter of human K14 keratin gene, specific for the basal layer of stratified epithelia, is regulated by nuclear receptors for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone. However, the DNA sequences responsible for this regulation have not yet been identified. To identify the retinoic acid- responsive site, we have devised a simple site-specific mutagenesis method and introduced mutations into the K14 keratin gene promoter. These mutations identify the retinoic acid responsive site. The site consists of a cluster of consensus palindrome half-sites in various orientations. As shown previously, retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors can recognize and bind common sequences in regulated genes. Here, we describe mutations that abolish regulation by both receptors. Interestingly, the hormone-dependent and -independent regulatory sites of the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor can be separated. Clusters of half-sites that share structural organization with the K14 regulatory site were found in the K5 and K10 keratin gene promoters. Similar clusters may be responsible for retinoic acid-mediated transcription regulation in epidermis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)842-847
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Investigative Dermatology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1992
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Dermatology
  • Cell Biology


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