Identification of Novel Hybrids Between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII

Mojgan Aminnejad, Mara Diaz, Michael Arabatzis, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazera, Aristea Velegraki, Deborah Marriott, Tania C. Sorrell, Wieland Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Cryptococcusneoformans and Cryptococcusgattii are pathogenic yeasts causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction occurs normally between individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) is comprised of molecular types VNI, VNII, and VNB, and C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) contains the molecular type VNIV. Additionally, diploid or aneuploid AD hybrids (VNIII) have been reported. C. gattii contains the molecular types VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, which encompass both serotypes B and C. To identify possible hybrid strains, URA5-RFLP analysis was performed on 350 globally obtained clinical, environmental, and veterinary isolates. Four clinical isolates from cerebrospinal fluid showed combination patterns of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii: Brazil (n = 2), Colombia (n = 1), and India (n = 1). These strains were monokaryotic and diploid or aneuploid. M13 PCR fingerprinting showed that they contained fragments of both proposed parental groups. Luminex IGS genotyping identified these isolates as hybrids with two different molecular type combinations: three VNI/VGII and one VNI/VGI. Blue color development on CGB agar was delayed in three isolates and absent in one. C. gattii-specific PCR confirmed the presence of C. gattii in the hybrids. CAP59 allele-specific PCR revealed that all the hybrids contained both serotype A and B alleles. Determination of mating-type allelic patterns by PCR revealed that the isolates were αA aB. This is the first study discovering novel natural hybrids between C. neoformans molecular type VNI and C. gattii molecular type VGII.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-346
Number of pages10
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Jun 2012


  • AB hybrids
  • Cryptococcusgattii
  • Cryptococcusneoformans
  • Mating type
  • Molecular type
  • Serotype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)


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