Context: We present a summary of the Second International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on chemotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer using an evidence-based strategy. Objective: To review the data regarding chemotherapy in patients with clinically localized and metastatic bladder cancer with a focus on its use for patients in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Evidence acquisition: Medline databases were searched for original articles published prior to April 1, 2012, using the following search terms: bladder cancer, urothelial cancer, metastatic, advanced, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant therapy. Proceedings of major conferences from the last 5 yr also were searched. Novel and promising drugs currently in clinical trials were included. Evidence synthesis: The major findings are addressed in an evidence-based manner. Prospective trials and important cohort data were analyzed. Conclusions: Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer is an established standard, improving overall survival. In the advanced setting, cisplatin-ineligible patients may benefit from gemcitabine and carboplatin. Meta-analyses undertaken for neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy show a 5% benefit in overall survival. Pathologic complete remission may be an intermediate surrogate for survival, but requires further validation. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is low, and is attributable to patient and physician choice because of limited benefit, advanced age, and comorbidities including renal and/or cardiac dysfunction. Sufficient data to support adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking.
- Bladder cancer
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