Hysteroscopic endometrial biopsy: from indications to instrumentation and techniques. A call to action

Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Gaetano Riemma, Luis Alonso Pacheco, Jose Carugno, Sergio Haimovich, Jan Tesarik, Maria Chiara De Angelis, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Pasquale De Franciscis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


During the last twenty years, the diagnostic approach to endometrial pathology has radically evolved. For over a century, intrauterine blind biopsy techniques were considered the gold standard procedure for the histopathological diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. The advent of hysteroscopy, which made it possible to directly visualize the uterine cavity, and the subsequent miniaturization of the instruments allowing its use in the office setting without anesthesia are considered game-changers. To date, it is feasible to retrieve a targeted eye specimen of endometrial tissue with little or no discomfort for the patient in the office setting. To pursue this aim, several technological upgrades have improved the diagnostic accuracy of hysteroscopic endometrial biopsy. In this paper we provide an up-to-date review of the latest evidence regarding indications, instrumentations, and techniques for hysteroscopic endometrial biopsy, to help the operator in providing an adequate endometrial sampling for histopathological analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-262
Number of pages12
JournalMinimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2021


  • AUB
  • endometrial biopsy
  • Hysteroscopy
  • in-office
  • infertility
  • innovations
  • instrumentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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