Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

Gabor Halmos, Nikoletta Dobos, Eva Juhasz, Zsuzsanna Szabo, Andrew V. Schally

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Neurohormones produced in the hypothalamus and transported by the hypophyseal portal vessels to the anterior pituitary gland control its secretion of trophic hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin. Hypothalamic hormones regulate various bodily functions such as growth, reproduction, lactation, metabolism, gastrointestinal function, and response to stress, as well as pathologic processes including tumorigenesis through the adenohypophyseal hormones and the hormones secreted by the target glands. The effects exerted are covered in books of physiology, medical endocrinology, oncology, pharmacology, and drug therapy. It is not within the scope of this review to survey all the available findings. This chapter consists of brief sections reviewing the current knowledge on each of the hypothalamic hormones, thyrotropin releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/gonadotropin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and prolactin-releasing factors, and listing their structures, evolution, receptors, signaling pathways, and physiologic functions. The status of potent synthetic analogs of hypothalamic peptides as promising drug candidates for the treatment of various diseases and conditions, especially endocrine disorders and cancer, and their applications in current clinical therapies are also summarized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHormonal Signaling in Biology and Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationComprehensive Modern Endocrinology
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9780128138151
ISBN (Print)9780128138144
StatePublished - Oct 23 2019


  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
  • Hypothalamic peptide hormones
  • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)
  • Prolactin-releasing factors (PRFs)
  • Somatostatin (SST)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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