Hyperglycemia / hypoglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cerebral ischemic damage in diabetics

Ashish K. Rehni, Neha Nautiyal, Miguel Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Enhancement of ischemic brain damage is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Studies from various in vivo and in vitro models of cerebral ischemia have led to an understanding of the role of mitochondria and complex interrelated mitochondrial biochemical pathways leading to the aggravation of ischemic neuronal damage. Advancements in the elucidation of the mechanisms of ischemic brain damage in diabetic subjects have revealed a number of key mitochondrial targets that have been hypothesized to participate in enhancement of brain damage. The present review initially discusses the neurobiology of ischemic neuronal injury, with special emphasis on the central role of mitochondria in mediating its pathogenesis and therapeutic targets. Later it further details the potential role of various biochemical mediators and second messengers causing widespread ischemic brain damage among diabetics via mitochondrial pathways. The present review discusses preclinical data which validates the significance of mitochondrial mechanisms in mediating the aggravation of ischemic cerebral injury in diabetes. Exploitation of these targets may provide effective therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes-related aggravation of ischemic neuronal damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)437-447
Number of pages11
JournalMetabolic Brain Disease
Volume30
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Ischemia
  • Ischemic brain injury
  • Mitochondria
  • Pharmacological interventions
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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