Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora

Hans Ter Steege, Nigel C.A. Pitman, Daniel Sabatier, Christopher Baraloto, Rafael P. Salomão, Juan Ernesto Guevara, Oliver L. Phillips, Carolina V. Castilho, William E. Magnusson, Jean François Molino, Abel Monteagudo, Percy Núñez Vargas, Juan Carlos Montero, Ted R. Feldpausch, Eurídice N.Honorio Coronado, Tim J. Killeen, Bonifacio Mostacedo, Rodolfo Vasquez, Rafael L. Assis, John TerborghFlorian Wittmann, Ana Andrade, William F. Laurance, Susan G.W. Laurance, Beatriz S. Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon, Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira, Iêda Leão Amaral, Roel Brienen, Hernán Castellanos, Dairon Cárdenas López, Joost F. Duivenvoorden, Hugo F. Mogollón, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida Matos, Nállarett Dávila, Roosevelt García-Villacorta, Pablo Roberto Stevenson Diaz, Flávia Costa, Thaise Emilio, Carolina Levis, Juliana Schietti, Priscila Souza, Alfonso Alonso, Francisco Dallmeier, Alvaro Javier Duque Montoya, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Luzmila Arroyo, Rogerio Gribel, Paul V.A. Fine, Carlos A. Peres, Marisol Toledo, Gerardo A. Aymard C., Tim R. Baker, Carlos Cerón, Julien Engel, Terry W. Henkel, Paul Maas, Pascal Petronelli, Juliana Stropp, Charles Eugene Zartman, Doug Daly, David Neill, Marcos Silveira, Marcos Ríos Paredes, Jerome Chave, Diógenes De Andrade Lima Filho, Peter Møller Jørgensen, Alfredo Fuentes, Jochen Schöngart, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, Anthony Di Fiore, Eliana M. Jimenez, Maria Cristina Peñuela Mora, Juan Fernando Phillips, Gonzalo Rivas, Tinde R. Van Andel, Patricio Von Hildebrand, Bruce Hoffman, Eglée L. Zent, Yadvinder Malhi, Adriana Prieto, Agustín Rudas, Ademir R. Ruschell, Natalino Silva, Vincent Vos, Stanford Zent, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Angela Cano Schutz, Therany Gonzales, Marcelo Trindade Nascimento, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Rodrigo Sierra, Milton Tirado, María Natalia Umaña Medina, Geertje Van Der Heijden, César I.A. Vela, Emilio Vilanova Torre, Corine Vriesendorp, Ophelia Wang, Kenneth R. Young, Claudia Baider, Henrik Balslev, Cid Ferreira, Italo Mesones, Armando Torres-Lezama, Ligia Estela Urrego Giraldo, Roderick Zagt, Miguel N. Alexiades, Lionel Hernandez, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, William Milliken, Walter Palacios Cuenca, Daniela Pauletto, Elvis Valderrama Sandoval, Luis Valenzuela Gamarra, Kyle G. Dexter, Kenneth Feeley, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Miles R. Silman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

468 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species - less diverse than the North American tree flora - accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1243092
JournalScience
Volume342
Issue number6156
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Ecosystem
Forests

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Cite this

Ter Steege, H., Pitman, N. C. A., Sabatier, D., Baraloto, C., Salomão, R. P., Guevara, J. E., ... Silman, M. R. (2013). Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science, 342(6156), [1243092]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1243092

Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. / Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Sabatier, Daniel; Baraloto, Christopher; Salomão, Rafael P.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Phillips, Oliver L.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Magnusson, William E.; Molino, Jean François; Monteagudo, Abel; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Coronado, Eurídice N.Honorio; Killeen, Tim J.; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Terborgh, John; Wittmann, Florian; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan G.W.; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben Hur; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Amaral, Iêda Leão; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Matos, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Costa, Flávia; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Gribel, Rogerio; Fine, Paul V.A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Toledo, Marisol; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Tim R.; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Maas, Paul; Petronelli, Pascal; Stropp, Juliana; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Daly, Doug; Neill, David; Silveira, Marcos; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; Chave, Jerome; Lima Filho, Diógenes De Andrade; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Fuentes, Alfredo; Schöngart, Jochen; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Phillips, Juan Fernando; Rivas, Gonzalo; Van Andel, Tinde R.; Von Hildebrand, Patricio; Hoffman, Bruce; Zent, Eglée L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vos, Vincent; Zent, Stanford; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Schutz, Angela Cano; Gonzales, Therany; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, María Natalia Umaña; Van Der Heijden, Geertje; Vela, César I.A.; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; Ferreira, Cid; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pauletto, Daniela; Sandoval, Elvis Valderrama; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Dexter, Kyle G.; Feeley, Kenneth; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Silman, Miles R.

In: Science, Vol. 342, No. 6156, 1243092, 01.01.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ter Steege, H, Pitman, NCA, Sabatier, D, Baraloto, C, Salomão, RP, Guevara, JE, Phillips, OL, Castilho, CV, Magnusson, WE, Molino, JF, Monteagudo, A, Vargas, PN, Montero, JC, Feldpausch, TR, Coronado, ENH, Killeen, TJ, Mostacedo, B, Vasquez, R, Assis, RL, Terborgh, J, Wittmann, F, Andrade, A, Laurance, WF, Laurance, SGW, Marimon, BS, Marimon, BH, Vieira, ICG, Amaral, IL, Brienen, R, Castellanos, H, López, DC, Duivenvoorden, JF, Mogollón, HF, Matos, FDDA, Dávila, N, García-Villacorta, R, Diaz, PRS, Costa, F, Emilio, T, Levis, C, Schietti, J, Souza, P, Alonso, A, Dallmeier, F, Montoya, AJD, Piedade, MTF, Araujo-Murakami, A, Arroyo, L, Gribel, R, Fine, PVA, Peres, CA, Toledo, M, Aymard C., GA, Baker, TR, Cerón, C, Engel, J, Henkel, TW, Maas, P, Petronelli, P, Stropp, J, Zartman, CE, Daly, D, Neill, D, Silveira, M, Paredes, MR, Chave, J, Lima Filho, DDA, Jørgensen, PM, Fuentes, A, Schöngart, J, Valverde, FC, Di Fiore, A, Jimenez, EM, Mora, MCP, Phillips, JF, Rivas, G, Van Andel, TR, Von Hildebrand, P, Hoffman, B, Zent, EL, Malhi, Y, Prieto, A, Rudas, A, Ruschell, AR, Silva, N, Vos, V, Zent, S, Oliveira, AA, Schutz, AC, Gonzales, T, Nascimento, MT, Ramirez-Angulo, H, Sierra, R, Tirado, M, Medina, MNU, Van Der Heijden, G, Vela, CIA, Torre, EV, Vriesendorp, C, Wang, O, Young, KR, Baider, C, Balslev, H, Ferreira, C, Mesones, I, Torres-Lezama, A, Giraldo, LEU, Zagt, R, Alexiades, MN, Hernandez, L, Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I, Milliken, W, Cuenca, WP, Pauletto, D, Sandoval, EV, Gamarra, LV, Dexter, KG, Feeley, K, Lopez-Gonzalez, G & Silman, MR 2013, 'Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora', Science, vol. 342, no. 6156, 1243092. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1243092
Ter Steege H, Pitman NCA, Sabatier D, Baraloto C, Salomão RP, Guevara JE et al. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science. 2013 Jan 1;342(6156). 1243092. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1243092
Ter Steege, Hans ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Magnusson, William E. ; Molino, Jean François ; Monteagudo, Abel ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Coronado, Eurídice N.Honorio ; Killeen, Tim J. ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Terborgh, John ; Wittmann, Florian ; Andrade, Ana ; Laurance, William F. ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Brienen, Roel ; Castellanos, Hernán ; López, Dairon Cárdenas ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Matos, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida ; Dávila, Nállarett ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson ; Costa, Flávia ; Emilio, Thaise ; Levis, Carolina ; Schietti, Juliana ; Souza, Priscila ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Gribel, Rogerio ; Fine, Paul V.A. ; Peres, Carlos A. ; Toledo, Marisol ; Aymard C., Gerardo A. ; Baker, Tim R. ; Cerón, Carlos ; Engel, Julien ; Henkel, Terry W. ; Maas, Paul ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Stropp, Juliana ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Daly, Doug ; Neill, David ; Silveira, Marcos ; Paredes, Marcos Ríos ; Chave, Jerome ; Lima Filho, Diógenes De Andrade ; Jørgensen, Peter Møller ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Di Fiore, Anthony ; Jimenez, Eliana M. ; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Rivas, Gonzalo ; Van Andel, Tinde R. ; Von Hildebrand, Patricio ; Hoffman, Bruce ; Zent, Eglée L. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Prieto, Adriana ; Rudas, Agustín ; Ruschell, Ademir R. ; Silva, Natalino ; Vos, Vincent ; Zent, Stanford ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. ; Schutz, Angela Cano ; Gonzales, Therany ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Tirado, Milton ; Medina, María Natalia Umaña ; Van Der Heijden, Geertje ; Vela, César I.A. ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Baider, Claudia ; Balslev, Henrik ; Ferreira, Cid ; Mesones, Italo ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego ; Zagt, Roderick ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Hernandez, Lionel ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Milliken, William ; Cuenca, Walter Palacios ; Pauletto, Daniela ; Sandoval, Elvis Valderrama ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Feeley, Kenneth ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Silman, Miles R. / Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. In: Science. 2013 ; Vol. 342, No. 6156.
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title = "Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora",
abstract = "The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4{\%}) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species - less diverse than the North American tree flora - accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.",
author = "{Ter Steege}, Hans and Pitman, {Nigel C.A.} and Daniel Sabatier and Christopher Baraloto and Salom{\~a}o, {Rafael P.} and Guevara, {Juan Ernesto} and Phillips, {Oliver L.} and Castilho, {Carolina V.} and Magnusson, {William E.} and Molino, {Jean Fran{\cc}ois} and Abel Monteagudo and Vargas, {Percy N{\'u}{\~n}ez} and Montero, {Juan Carlos} and Feldpausch, {Ted R.} and Coronado, {Eur{\'i}dice N.Honorio} and Killeen, {Tim J.} and Bonifacio Mostacedo and Rodolfo Vasquez and Assis, {Rafael L.} and John Terborgh and Florian Wittmann and Ana Andrade and Laurance, {William F.} and Laurance, {Susan G.W.} and Marimon, {Beatriz S.} and Marimon, {Ben Hur} and Vieira, {Ima C{\'e}lia Guimar{\~a}es} and Amaral, {I{\^e}da Le{\~a}o} and Roel Brienen and Hern{\'a}n Castellanos and L{\'o}pez, {Dairon C{\'a}rdenas} and Duivenvoorden, {Joost F.} and Mogoll{\'o}n, {Hugo F.} and Matos, {Francisca Dion{\'i}zia De Almeida} and N{\'a}llarett D{\'a}vila and Roosevelt Garc{\'i}a-Villacorta and Diaz, {Pablo Roberto Stevenson} and Fl{\'a}via Costa and Thaise Emilio and Carolina Levis and Juliana Schietti and Priscila Souza and Alfonso Alonso and Francisco Dallmeier and Montoya, {Alvaro Javier Duque} and Piedade, {Maria Teresa Fernandez} and Alejandro Araujo-Murakami and Luzmila Arroyo and Rogerio Gribel and Fine, {Paul V.A.} and Peres, {Carlos A.} and Marisol Toledo and {Aymard C.}, {Gerardo A.} and Baker, {Tim R.} and Carlos Cer{\'o}n and Julien Engel and Henkel, {Terry W.} and Paul Maas and Pascal Petronelli and Juliana Stropp and Zartman, {Charles Eugene} and Doug Daly and David Neill and Marcos Silveira and Paredes, {Marcos R{\'i}os} and Jerome Chave and {Lima Filho}, {Di{\'o}genes De Andrade} and J{\o}rgensen, {Peter M{\o}ller} and Alfredo Fuentes and Jochen Sch{\"o}ngart and Valverde, {Fernando Cornejo} and {Di Fiore}, Anthony and Jimenez, {Eliana M.} and Mora, {Maria Cristina Pe{\~n}uela} and Phillips, {Juan Fernando} and Gonzalo Rivas and {Van Andel}, {Tinde R.} and {Von Hildebrand}, Patricio and Bruce Hoffman and Zent, {Egl{\'e}e L.} and Yadvinder Malhi and Adriana Prieto and Agust{\'i}n Rudas and Ruschell, {Ademir R.} and Natalino Silva and Vincent Vos and Stanford Zent and Oliveira, {Alexandre A.} and Schutz, {Angela Cano} and Therany Gonzales and Nascimento, {Marcelo Trindade} and Hirma Ramirez-Angulo and Rodrigo Sierra and Milton Tirado and Medina, {Mar{\'i}a Natalia Uma{\~n}a} and {Van Der Heijden}, Geertje and Vela, {C{\'e}sar I.A.} and Torre, {Emilio Vilanova} and Corine Vriesendorp and Ophelia Wang and Young, {Kenneth R.} and Claudia Baider and Henrik Balslev and Cid Ferreira and Italo Mesones and Armando Torres-Lezama and Giraldo, {Ligia Estela Urrego} and Roderick Zagt and Alexiades, {Miguel N.} and Lionel Hernandez and Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco and William Milliken and Cuenca, {Walter Palacios} and Daniela Pauletto and Sandoval, {Elvis Valderrama} and Gamarra, {Luis Valenzuela} and Dexter, {Kyle G.} and Kenneth Feeley and Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez and Silman, {Miles R.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora

AU - Ter Steege, Hans

AU - Pitman, Nigel C.A.

AU - Sabatier, Daniel

AU - Baraloto, Christopher

AU - Salomão, Rafael P.

AU - Guevara, Juan Ernesto

AU - Phillips, Oliver L.

AU - Castilho, Carolina V.

AU - Magnusson, William E.

AU - Molino, Jean François

AU - Monteagudo, Abel

AU - Vargas, Percy Núñez

AU - Montero, Juan Carlos

AU - Feldpausch, Ted R.

AU - Coronado, Eurídice N.Honorio

AU - Killeen, Tim J.

AU - Mostacedo, Bonifacio

AU - Vasquez, Rodolfo

AU - Assis, Rafael L.

AU - Terborgh, John

AU - Wittmann, Florian

AU - Andrade, Ana

AU - Laurance, William F.

AU - Laurance, Susan G.W.

AU - Marimon, Beatriz S.

AU - Marimon, Ben Hur

AU - Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães

AU - Amaral, Iêda Leão

AU - Brienen, Roel

AU - Castellanos, Hernán

AU - López, Dairon Cárdenas

AU - Duivenvoorden, Joost F.

AU - Mogollón, Hugo F.

AU - Matos, Francisca Dionízia De Almeida

AU - Dávila, Nállarett

AU - García-Villacorta, Roosevelt

AU - Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson

AU - Costa, Flávia

AU - Emilio, Thaise

AU - Levis, Carolina

AU - Schietti, Juliana

AU - Souza, Priscila

AU - Alonso, Alfonso

AU - Dallmeier, Francisco

AU - Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

AU - Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

AU - Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro

AU - Arroyo, Luzmila

AU - Gribel, Rogerio

AU - Fine, Paul V.A.

AU - Peres, Carlos A.

AU - Toledo, Marisol

AU - Aymard C., Gerardo A.

AU - Baker, Tim R.

AU - Cerón, Carlos

AU - Engel, Julien

AU - Henkel, Terry W.

AU - Maas, Paul

AU - Petronelli, Pascal

AU - Stropp, Juliana

AU - Zartman, Charles Eugene

AU - Daly, Doug

AU - Neill, David

AU - Silveira, Marcos

AU - Paredes, Marcos Ríos

AU - Chave, Jerome

AU - Lima Filho, Diógenes De Andrade

AU - Jørgensen, Peter Møller

AU - Fuentes, Alfredo

AU - Schöngart, Jochen

AU - Valverde, Fernando Cornejo

AU - Di Fiore, Anthony

AU - Jimenez, Eliana M.

AU - Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela

AU - Phillips, Juan Fernando

AU - Rivas, Gonzalo

AU - Van Andel, Tinde R.

AU - Von Hildebrand, Patricio

AU - Hoffman, Bruce

AU - Zent, Eglée L.

AU - Malhi, Yadvinder

AU - Prieto, Adriana

AU - Rudas, Agustín

AU - Ruschell, Ademir R.

AU - Silva, Natalino

AU - Vos, Vincent

AU - Zent, Stanford

AU - Oliveira, Alexandre A.

AU - Schutz, Angela Cano

AU - Gonzales, Therany

AU - Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

AU - Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma

AU - Sierra, Rodrigo

AU - Tirado, Milton

AU - Medina, María Natalia Umaña

AU - Van Der Heijden, Geertje

AU - Vela, César I.A.

AU - Torre, Emilio Vilanova

AU - Vriesendorp, Corine

AU - Wang, Ophelia

AU - Young, Kenneth R.

AU - Baider, Claudia

AU - Balslev, Henrik

AU - Ferreira, Cid

AU - Mesones, Italo

AU - Torres-Lezama, Armando

AU - Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego

AU - Zagt, Roderick

AU - Alexiades, Miguel N.

AU - Hernandez, Lionel

AU - Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau

AU - Milliken, William

AU - Cuenca, Walter Palacios

AU - Pauletto, Daniela

AU - Sandoval, Elvis Valderrama

AU - Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

AU - Dexter, Kyle G.

AU - Feeley, Kenneth

AU - Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela

AU - Silman, Miles R.

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species - less diverse than the North American tree flora - accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.

AB - The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species - less diverse than the North American tree flora - accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.

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