Hypercalcemia, parathyroid hormone-related protein expression and human t-cell leukemia virus infection

D. Prager, J. D. Rosenblatt, E. Ejima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) associated with HTLV-1 infection is characterized by the development of hypercalcemia in over two thirds of patients. Dysregulation of cellular gene transcription by viral proteins is an emerging paradigm for molecular pathogenesis of disease. A recent example is the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene, which has been implicated in the hypercalcemia of ATL, and is transactivated by the HTLV-1 tax and HTLV-11 tax proteins. PTHrP is expressed at high levels in leukemia cells derived from ATL patients, as well as in asymptomatic HTLV-1 positive carriers. This article reviews the interaction of the HTLV-1 transcriptional regulator tax with the PTHrP promoter. Tax mediates its effects on PTHrP via cellular transcription factors AP-2 and AP-1, and transactivation via an AP-2 motif represents a novel interaction of tax with a cellular transcription factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-400
Number of pages6
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Human T-cell leukemia
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Parathyroid hormone related protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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