Objectives. To identify the causes of mortality in children with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to study age-related mortality trends. Methods. In the multicenter P2C2 HIV Study, 816 children born to HIV-infected mothers were followed for a median of 3.6 years. Two hundred five study participants with HIV infection were enrolled at a median age of 23 months; 611 were enrolled either prenatally or in the neonatal period before their HIV infection status was known. There were 121 deaths in study patients. The cause of death for all patients, its relationship to HIV infection, and pulmonary or cardiac involvement were determined. Age trends in disease-specific mortality were summarized for the HIV-related deaths. Results. Ninety-three children died of HIV-related conditions. Infection was the most prevalent cause of death for children under 6 years of age with 32.3% caused by pulmonary infection and another 16.9% caused by nonpulmonary infection. The frequency of pulmonary disease as the underlying cause of death decreased significantly with increasing age: 5/9 (55.6%) by age 1, 1/12 (8.3%) after age 10 years. The frequency of chronic cardiac disease as the underlying cause increased with age - 0% by age 1 year, 3/12 (25.0%) after age 10 years, as did the frequency of wasting syndrome with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex - 0% by age 1 year, 6/12 (50.0%) after age 10 years. Conclusions. Children with HIV who survive longer are less likely to die of pulmonary disease or infection and more likely to die of cardiac causes or with wasting syndrome.
- Human immuno-deficiency virus
- Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health