Varying components of the syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy (HIVN) have been described, the most pertinent including proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome, progressive azotemia, normal blood pressure, enlarged and hyperechoic kidneys, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and no response to treatment regimens. The diagnosis of HIVN requires identification of excessive proteinuria or albuminuria, determined by a total protein excretion on a timed urine collection or a high protein/creatinine ratio in a random specimen. Various pathological lesions have been found in HIVN. The lesion of focal and segmental sclerosis (FS/FSS) is most characteristic in adults and usually is associated with a rapid demise. FS/FSS also has been described in approximately one-half of the pediatric patients reported in the literature (31/64). Despite progression to ESRD, the clinical course in children with HIVN is less fulminant than in adults. Other reported histological findings include primarily mesangial hyperplasia as well as minimal change, focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis or lupus nephritis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. In addition to glomerular pathology, interstitial findings of dilated tubules filled with a unique proteinaceous material, atrophied tubular epithelium, and interstitial cell infiltration are very common. On electron microscopy, most investigators have found tubuloreticular inclusion bodies in endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries. Treatment of patients who develop ESRD remains highly controversial. Most adult patients treated with hemodialysis have succumbed rapidly; peritoneal dialysis has been better tolerated. Transplantation in patients with HIV infection must be considered to be tentative, with reports of acceleration towards full blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in some and uneventful 5-year survival in others. The situation of the pediatric patient with HIVN remains unclear and awaits the benefit of experience.
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- Focal glomerulosclerosis
- Human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health