Human glomerular endothelium: Interplay among glucose, free fatty acids, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress

Edgar A. Jaimes, Ping Hua, Run Xia Tian, Leopoldo Raij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Glomerular endothelial cells (GEC) are strategically situated within the capillary loop and adjacent to the glomerular mesangium. GEC serve as targets of metabolic, biochemical, and hemodynamic signals that regulate the glomerular microcirculation. Unequivocally, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and the local renin-angiotensin system partake in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whether free fatty acids (FFA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been associated with the endothelial dysfunction of diabetic macrovascular disease also contribute to DN is not known. Since endothelial cells from different organs and from different species may display different phenotypes, we employed human GEC to investigate the effect of high glucose (22.5 mmol/l), FFA (800 μmol/l), and angiotensin II (ANG II; 10-7 mol/l) on the genesis of ROS and their effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs). We demonstrated that high glucose but not high FFA increased the expression of a dysfunctional eNOS as well as increased ROS from NADPH oxidase (100%) and likely from uncoupled eNOS. ANG II also induced ROS from NADPH oxidase. High glucose and ANG II upregulated (100%) COX-2 via ROS and significantly increased the synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2) by 300%. In contrast, FFA did not upregulate COX-2 but increased PGI2 (500%). These novel studies are the first in human GEC that characterize the differential role of FFA, hyperglycemia, and ANG II on the genesis of ROS, COX-2, and PGs and their interplay in the early stages of hyperglcyemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)F125-F132
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • Diabetes
  • Nitric oxide
  • Prostaglandins
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Urology
  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Human glomerular endothelium: Interplay among glucose, free fatty acids, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this