Human Germinal Center-Associated Lymphoma (HGAL) Is a Reliable Marker of Normal and Neoplastic Follicular Helper T Cells including Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma

Matthew Koo, Jingjing Zhang, Brent Tan, Jason Kurzer, Dita Gratzinger, Shuchun Zhao, Carlos Suarez, Izidore S. Lossos, Roger A. Warnke, Yasodha Natkunam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is complex and requires the demonstration of a T-follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. Immunophenotypic markers that detect the TFH phenotype are highly variable, thereby necessitating the use of 3 to 5 TFH markers to substantiate a TFH phenotype. We tested the utility of germinal center markers human germinal center-Associated lymphoma (HGAL) and LIM-domain only 2 (LMO2) in detecting a TFH phenotype. We compared their staining to that of 6 TFH markers in current use, PD-1, ICOS, CXCL13, SAP, CD10, and BCL6, in a cohort of 23 AITL. Our results show that although both markers can detect a TFH phenotype, HGAL was superior to LMO2 in the percent of cells stained and the intensity of staining, 2 variables used to generate H-scores. Using H-scores as the metric, HGAL was most comparable to BCL6 among the currently used TFH markers and was more sensitive than CXCL13, SAP, CD10, and LMO2. PD-1 and ICOS emerged as the most robust of the 8 markers tested in this study in detecting a TFH phenotype. We conclude that HGAL is a reliable marker of TFH cells and can aid in the diagnosis of lymphomas of TFH derivation, particularly in the recognition of early patterns of AITL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
  • germinal center
  • HGAL
  • ICOS
  • PD-1
  • T-follicualr helper
  • TFH phenotype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Human Germinal Center-Associated Lymphoma (HGAL) Is a Reliable Marker of Normal and Neoplastic Follicular Helper T Cells including Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this