How women have fared as interscholastic athletic administrators since the passage of Title IX

Warren A. Whisenant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to assess how well women have fared under Title IX at the interscholastic level, not as participants or coaches, but beyond the playing field into the offices of the athletic director. Demographic data were collected pertaining to the gender of members who belong to state high school athletic director associations identified by the National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association (NIAAA). An analysis of the gender composition of those state organizations showed that significantly (p < .05) fewer women (13 % ) than men (87 % ) held interscholastic athletic administrator positions. Additional analyses showed that there were state as well as regional differences in the percentage of women serving as interscholastic athletic directors. The findings demonstrate that although women have made extensive gains on the playing field as participants, they have been denied access to the positions of power within interscholastic athletics. Remedies and the potential effects of this segregation on girls and women, beyond the playing field, are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-184
Number of pages6
JournalSex Roles
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Aug 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Interscholastic athletics
  • Title IX
  • Women athletic directors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Gender Studies


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