The need to broaden research directed at answering fundamental questions in HIV vaccine discovery through laboratory, nonhuman primate (NHP), and clinical research has recently been emphasized. In addition, the importance of attracting and retaining young researchers, developing better NHP models, and more closely linking NHP and clinical research is being stressed. In an era of a level budget for biomedical research at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), HIV/AIDS vaccine research efforts will need to be carefully prioritized such that resources to energize HIV vaccine discovery can be identified. This article summarizes progress and challenges in HIV vaccine research, the priorities arising from a recent summit at NIAID, and the actions needed, some already under way, to address those priorities.
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