Intense research into fundamental processes of human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1 (HIV-1) replication has yielded knowledge that in many aspects equals or exceeds that of the oncogenic retroviruses. The availability of sensitive virus detection methods has allowed a more thorough characterization of the biology of virus persistence and latency in vivo and removed the dependence on in vitro models. As a clearer picture of the pattern of HIV-1 replication in vivo evolves, it becomes apparent that HIV-1 biology is distinct from that of the prototypic oncogenic retroviruses in several key aspects, particularly with regard to host cell range and determinants of viral permissiveness. In this respect it may be appropriate to examine the lentivirus, rather than the oncovirus model system to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. This synopsis of recent and ongoing research developments in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis emphasizes the determinants of host cell permissiveness, early events in virus replication, and underlying features in HIV-1 cytopathogenesis. In addition, basic viral replication processes which can be exploited for therapeutic intervention are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases