HIV-1 infection and drug-abuse in India - An emerging challenge

Mahendra Kumar, Adarsh M. Kumar, Raymond Ownby, Deborah L. Jones, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


India has a population of over 1 billion and the first cases of HIV-1 infection were reported from there in 1987. Since then HIV-infection has spread there very aggressively and at present it is reported that there may be 5.7 millions individuals infected with HIV. Unlike the western countries where the infected HIV-1 virus belongs to clade B, in India it is clade C. A number of structural and functional differences in these two strains can lead to very different pathogenesis. What we know about pathogenesis due to HIV-1 infection is mostly due to studies carried out in the west where the infecting clade is B. Studies on clade C are very few and to meet this challenge research on HIV-1 C clade infection should be carried out on priority bases. Recently NIH funded projects in India are attempting to initiate research on HIV-1 infection. The epidemiology and belief systems in India are additional challenges to carrying out HIV research. There is an urgent need to initiate multi-disciplinary research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-194
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2007


  • AIDS
  • Clade C
  • HIV
  • India

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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