In recent years the study of chemical modifications to chromatin and their effects oncellular processes has become increasinglyimportant inthe field of cancer research. Disruptions to the normal epigenetic pattern of the cell can serve as biomarkers and are important determinants of cancer progression. Accordingly, drugs that inhibit the enzymes responsible for modulating these epigenetic markers, in particular histone deacetylases, are the focus of intense research and development. In this chapter we provide an overview of class I and II histone deacetylases as well as a guide to the diverse types of histone deacetylase inhibitors and their activities in the context of APL. We also discuss the rationale for the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination therapy for the treatment of cancer and the current status of clinical trials.