We evaluated 190 children with very high-risk leukemia, who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in 2 sequential treatment eras, to determine whether those treated with contemporary protocols had a high risk of relapse or toxic death, and whether non-HLA-identical transplantations yielded poor outcomes. For the recent cohorts, the 5-year overall survival rates were65%for the 37 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 74% for the 46 with acute myeloid leukemia; these rates compared favorably with those of earlier cohorts (28%, n = 57; and 34%, n = 50, respectively). Improvement in the recent cohorts was observed regardless of donor type (sibling, 70% vs 24%; unrelated, 61% vs 37%; and haploidentical,88%vs 19%), attributable to less infection (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.12; P = .005), regimen-related toxicity (HR = 0.25; P = .002), and leukemiarelated death (HR = 0.40; P = .01). Survival probability was dependent on leukemia status (first remission vs more advanced disease; HR = 0.63; P = .03) or minimal residual disease (positive vs negative; HR = 2.10; P = .01) at the time of transplantation. We concluded that transplantation has improved over time and should be considered for all children with very high-risk leukemia, regardless of matched donor availability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology