High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Footpad Vasculature in a Murine Hindlimb Gangrene Model

Antoine J. Ribieras, Yulexi Y. Ortiz, Sophie Shrestha, C. Theodore Huerta, Hongwei Shao, Maria E. Boulina, Roberto I. Vazquez-Padron, Zhao Jun Liu, Omaida C. Velazquez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a significant cause of morbidity resulting from chronic exposure to atherosclerotic risk factors. Patients suffering from its most severe form, chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI), face substantial impairments to daily living, including chronic pain, limited walking distance without pain, and nonhealing wounds. Preclinical models have been developed in various animals to study PAD, but mouse hindlimb ischemia remains the most widely used. There can be significant variation in response to ischemic insult in these models depending on the mouse strain used and the site, number, and means of arterial disruption. This protocol describes a unique method combining femoral artery and vein electrocoagulation with the administration of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor to reliably induce footpad gangrene in Friend Virus B (FVB) mice that resembles the tissue loss of CLTI. While traditional means of assessing reperfusion such as laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) are still recommended, intracardiac perfusion of the lipophilic dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) is used to label the vasculature. Subsequent whole-mount confocal laser scanning microscopy allows for high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of footpad vascular networks that complements traditional means of assessing reperfusion in hindlimb ischemia models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere63284
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number181
StatePublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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