High affinity choline transport and acetylCoA production in brain and their roles in the regulation of acetylcholine synthesis

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298 Scopus citations

Abstract

This review describes recent advances made in the understanding of the regulation of acetylcholine synthesis in brain with regard to the availability of its two precursors, choline and acetylCoA. Choline availability appears to be regulated by the high affinity choline transport system. Investigations of the localization and inhibition of this system are reviewed. Procedures for measuring high affinity choline transport and their shortcomings are described. The kinetics and effects of previous in vivo and in vitro treatments on high affinity choline transport are reviewed. Kinetic and direct coupling of the transport and acetylation of choline are discussed. Recent investigations of the source of acetylCoA used for the synthesis of acetylcholine are reviewed. Three sources of acetylCoA have recently received support: citrate conversion catalyzed by citrate lyase, direct release of acetylCoA from mitochondria following its synthesis from pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, and production of acetylCoA by cytoplasmic pyruvate dehydrogenase. Investigations indicating that acetylCoA availability may limit acetylcholine synthesis are reviewed. A model for the regulation of acetylcholine synthesis which incorporates most of the reviewed material is presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-344
Number of pages32
JournalBrain Research Reviews
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1979
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • acetylCoA
  • acetylcholine
  • choline acetyltransferase
  • choline transport
  • pyruvate dehydrogenase
  • synaptosomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

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