Hidden Markov model-based packet loss concealment for voice over IP

Christoffer A. Rødbro, Manohar N. Murthi, Søren Vang Andersen, Søren Holdt Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


As voice over IP proliferates, packet loss concealment (PLC) at the receiver has emerged as an important factor in determining voice quality of service. Through the use of heuristic variations of signal and parameter repetition and overlap-add interpolation to handle packet loss, conventional PLC systems largely ignore the dynamics of the statistical evolution of the speech signal, possibly leading to perceptually annoying artifacts. To address this problem, we propose the use of hidden Markov models for PLC. With a hidden Markov model (HMM) tracking the evolution of speech signal parameters, we demonstrate how PLC is performed within a statistical signal processing framework. Moreover, we show how the HMM is used to index a specially designed PLC module for the particular signal context, leading to signal-contingent PLC. Simulation examples, objective tests, and subjective listening tests are provided showing the ability of an HMM-based PLC built with a sinusoidal analysis/synthesis model to provide better loss concealment than a conventional PLC based on the same sinusoidal model for all types of speech signals, including onsets and signal transitions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1609-1623
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Hidden Markov models (HMMs)
  • Internet telephony
  • Packet loss
  • Packet loss concealment
  • Packet switching
  • Speech coding
  • Speech communication
  • Voice over IP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Hidden Markov model-based packet loss concealment for voice over IP'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this