Hepatitis C virus increases the risk of kidney disease among HIV-positive patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Fabrizio Fabrizi, Vivek Dixit, Paul Martin, Piergiorgio Messa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations

Abstract

Kidney disease has become an important co-morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients as they live longer in the era of highly effective antiretroviral therapy. It remains unclear how co-infection with hepatitis C virus impacts on the trajectory of kidney disease among HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the effect of co-infection with HCV on the risk of kidney disease in HIV-infected populations. We conducted a systematic review of the published medical literature to determine if hepatitis C co-infection is associated with increased likelihood of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive adults. We used the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to generate a summary estimate of the relative risk for chronic kidney disease (defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or detectable proteinuria) with hepatitis C virus across the published studies. Meta-regression and stratified analysis were also conducted. We identified 19 studies (146,151 unique patients with HIV) and separate meta-analyses were performed according to the outcome. Aggregation of longitudinal studies (n=8, 105,462 unique patients) showed a relationship between HCV infection and increased risk of reduced glomerular filtration rate among HIV-infected individuals, the summary estimate for adjusted hazard ratio was 1.64 (95%CI, 1.28; 2.0, P<0.001) in HIV-HCV co-infected individuals compared with those having HIV mono-infection. No between-studies heterogeneity was noted (P-value by Q test=0.08). HCV positive serology was an independent risk factor for proteinuria; adjusted effect estimate, 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.18; 1.28, P=0.001) (n=6 studies; 26,835 unique patients). In meta-regression, we noted the impact of ageing (P=0.0001) upon the adjusted hazard ratio of incidence of reduced glomerular filtration rate among HCV-HIV co-infected patients; a negative association between frequency of males (P=0.001) and the adjusted hazard ratio of prevalence of low glomerular filtration rate was found. Hepatitis C co-infection is associated with a significant increase in the risk of reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or detectable proteinuria among HIV-infected individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)487-497
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Volume88
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Proteinuria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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