18 of 45 (40%) Ugandan patients with Shepatocellular carcinoma and 4 of 122 (3%) control patients had positive complement-fixation tests for hepatitis-associated antigen (H.A.A.). There was a tendency for H.A.A.-positive individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma to be α-fetoprotein positive and to have underlying cirrhosis of the "posthepatitic" type. Young patients tended to be H.A.A. positive more frequently than old patients. The data provide support for the hypothesis that antecedent viral-hepatitis infection may play some role in the ætiology and pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Uganda.
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