Head-up display assisted endoscopic lumbar discectomy—A technical note

Jason I. Liounakos, Timur Urakov, Michael Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Minimally invasive surgery is heavily dependent on indirect visualization and image guidance, often resulting in non-ergonomic postures. Minimally invasive surgeons are more likely to experience neck pain, shoulder pain, and fatigue compared to open surgeons. Spinal endoscopy is rapidly increasing in popularity among minimally invasive spine surgeons. A primary ergonomic issue is the position of the endoscope display, which is often not in line with the operative field or the surgeon's natural line of sight. Methods: Smart glasses providing a head-up display are used in a case of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy to bring the surgeon's line of sight into parallel with the operative field. Results: Bringing the surgeon's visual and motor axes into parallel resulted in a more comfortable and ergonomic operating position. Conclusions: Head-up displays may provide an elegant and relatively simple solution to the issue of inadequate ergonomics in minimally invasive surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2089
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • endoscopic spine surgery
  • minimally invasive surgery
  • spine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biophysics
  • Computer Science Applications


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