Various hand-assisted and purely laparoscopic nephroureterectomy techniques have been described in the urologic literature. We describe a technique of hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with cystoscopic en bloc excision of the distal ureter and bladder cuff that duplicates open surgical excision of these structures and obviates bladder trocar placement and midprocedural patient repositioning. The patient is placed in a modified dorsal lithotomy position with the tumor side elevated 30°. Allen stirrups are utilized to allow simultaneous access to the urethra. A transperitoneal hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy is performed. The technique is modified in that the ureter is clipped prior to the kidney dissection to avoid distal migration of tumor cells during kidney manipulation. After the kidney is isolated, the intact ureter is liberated distal to the intramural hiatus. The remaining dissection is completed intravesically under cystoscopic guidance. While the surgeon's intra-abdominal hand places the ureter on tension, the cystoscopist transurethrally excises the bladder cuff and intramural ureter with a Collings knife. The complete surgical specimen is removed en bloc through the hand port. The bladder is not closed. A urethral catheter connected to straight drainage remains until the seventh postoperative day, when a cystogram is performed; if it is normal, the catheter is removed.
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