Hamstring muscles: An overview of anatomy, biomechanics and function, injury etiology, treatment, and prevention

Penny G. Kroll, Michele A. Raya

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Scopus citations


Hamstring injuries are one of the most frequently encountered muscle strains. These injuries occur primarily in sports that require bursts of speed and rapid acceleration and are known to have a high rate of recurrence. A number of etiologies have been proposed for these hamstring injuries. Research has also implicated dysfunction of the hamstrings in injuries of the anterior cruiciate ligament and the low back. The purpose of this article is to (1) review the anatomy and biomechanics of the hamstring muscles in relationship to the lower extremity and low back, (2) examine the possible etiology, treatment, and prevention of intrinsic hamstring injuries, and (3) examine the role of hamstring muscles in injuries and treatment of the anterior cruciate ligament and the low back.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-203
Number of pages13
JournalCritical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997



  • Anatomy
  • Biomechanics
  • Function
  • Hamstring muscles
  • Injury etiology
  • Prevention
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation

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